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Nuevo RCDE, inclusión del transporte marítimo y fondo social para el clima

Actualizado: 27 oct 2023

El Mecanismo de Ajuste en Frontera por Carbono (MAFC) propuesto por la Comisión Europea fue diseñado con el objetivo de establecer unas condiciones de competencia equitativas entre los productores de la Unión y de terceros países, fijando un precio del carbono para determinados productos importados y eliminando progresivamente los derechos de emisión gratuitos a la industria europea.

El 22 de junio de 2022, el Parlamento Europeo adoptó su posición, que incluía importantes enmiendas a la propuesta original. El 13 de diciembre de 2022 se alcanzó un acuerdo provisional. La votación del texto por parte del Parlamento está prevista para el período parcial de sesiones de abril.

The CBAM regulation officially entered into force the day following its publication in the Official Journal of the EU on 16 May 2023. The CBAM itself will enter into application in its transitional phase on 1 October 2023, with the first reporting period for importers ending 31 January 2024.


★ Reglamento (UE) 2023/955 del Parlamento Europeo y del Consejo, de 10 de mayo de 2023, por elque se establece un Fondo Social para el Clima y se modifica el Reglamento (UE) 2021/1060

★ Reglamento (UE) 2023/956 del Parlamento Europeo y del Consejo, de 10 de mayo de 2023, por el que se establece un Mecanismo de Ajuste en Frontera por Carbono

★ Reglamento (UE) 2023/957 del Parlamento Europeo y del Consejo, de 10 de mayo de 2023, por el que se modifica el Reglamento (UE) 2015/757 con el fin de incorporar las actividades de transporte marítimo al régimen para el comercio de derechos de emisión en la Unión y de seguir, notificar y verificar las emisiones de gases de efecto invernadero adicionales y las emisiones procedentes de tipos adicionales de buques


★ Directiva (UE) 2023/958 del Parlamento Europeo y del Consejo, de 10 de mayo de 2023, por la que se modifica la Directiva 2003/87/CE en lo que respecta a la contribución de la aviación al objetivo de la Unión de reducir las emisiones en el conjunto de la economía y a la adecuada aplicación de una medida de merca do mundial

★ Directiva (UE) 2023/959 del Parlamento Europeo y del Consejo, de 10 de mayo de 2023, que modifica la Directiva 2003/87/CE por la que se establece un régimen para el comercio de derechos de emisión de gases de efecto invernadero en la Unión y la Decisión (UE) 2015/1814, relativa al establecimiento y funcionamiento de una reserva de estabilidad del mercado en el marco del régimen para el comercio de derechos de emisión de gases de efecto invernadero en la Unión

The reporting obligations and information sought from EU importers of CBAM goods, as well as the provisional methodology for calculating embedded emissions released during the production process of CBAM goods will be further specified in an Implementing Regulation to be adopted by the Commission after consulting the CBAM Committee, made up of experts from EU Member States. On 13 June 2023, the European Commission published a first call for feedbackEN••• on that Implementing Regulation.

The CBAM will enter into force in its transitional phase as of 1 October 2023.It will initially apply to imports of certain goods and selected precursors whose production is carbon intensive and at most significant risk of carbon leakage: cement, iron and steel, aluminium, fertilisers, electricity and hydrogen. With this enlarged scope, CBAM will eventually – when fully phased in – capture more than 50% of the emissions in ETS covered sectors. The objective of this transition period is to serve as a pilot and learning period for all stakeholders (importers, producers and authorities) and to collect useful information on embedded emissions to refine the methodology for the definitive period.

The gradual phasing in of CBAM over time will also allow for a careful, predictable and proportionate transition for EU and non-EU businesses, as well as for public authorities. During this period, importers of goods in the scope of the new rules will only have to report greenhouse gas emissions (GHG) embedded in their imports (direct and indirect emissions), without making any financial payments or adjustments. Indirect emissions will be covered in the scope after the transitional period for some sectors (cement and fertilisers), on the basis of a methodology to be defined in the meantime.

The draft Implementing Regulation on reporting requirements and methodology provides for some flexibility when it comes to the values used to calculate embedded emissions on imports during the transitional phase. During the first year of implementation, companies will have the choice of reporting in three ways: (a) full reporting according to the new methodology (EU method); (b) reporting based on equivalent third country national systems; and (c) reporting based on reference values. As of 1 January 2025, only the EU method will be accepted.

The Commission is also developing dedicated IT tools to help importers perform and report these calculations, as well as in-depth guidance, training materials and tutorials to support businesses when the transitional mechanism begins. While importers will be asked to collect fourth quarter data as of 1 October 2023, their first report will only have to be submitted by the end of January 2024.

Once the permanent system enters into force on 1 January 2026, importers will need to declare each year the quantity of goods imported into the EU in the preceding year and their embedded GHG. They will then surrender the corresponding number of CBAM certificates. The price of the certificates will be calculated depending on the weekly average auction price of EU ETS allowances expressed in €/tonne of CO2 emitted. The phasing-out of free allocation under the EU ETS will take place in parallel with the phasing-in of CBAM in the period 2026-2034.

A review of the CBAM's functioning during its transitional phase will be concluded before the entry into force of the definitive system. At the same time, the product scope will be reviewed to assess the feasibility of including other goods produced in sectors covered by the EU ETS in the scope of the CBAM mechanism, such as certain downstream products and those identified as suitable candidates during negotiations. The report will include a timetable setting out their inclusion by 2030


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